7 December 2018
Source: Therapeutic Advances in Ophthalmology
A transparent cornea is essential for the formation of a clear image on the retina. The human cornea is arranged into well-organized layers, and each layer plays a significant role in maintaining the transparency and viability of the tissue. The endothelium has both barrier and pump functions, which are important for the maintenance of corneal clarity. Many etiologies, including Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy, surgical trauma, and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy, lead to endothelial cell dysfunction. The main treatment for corneal decompensation is replacement of the abnormal corneal layers with normal donor tissue. Nowadays, the trend is to perform selective endothelial keratoplasty, including Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty, to manage corneal endothelial dysfunction. This selective approach has several advantages over penetrating keratoplasty, including rapid recovery of visual acuity, less likelihood of graft rejection, and better patient satisfaction. However, the global limitation in the supply of donor corneas is becoming an increasing challenge, necessitating alternatives to reduce this demand. Consequently, in vitro expansion of human corneal endothelial cells is evolving as a sustainable choice. This method is intended to prepare corneal endothelial cells in vitro that can be transferred to the eye. Herein, we describe the etiologies and manifestations of human corneal endothelial cell dysfunction. We also summarize the available options for as well as recent developments in the management of corneal endothelial dysfunction.
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